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 Actual Version:  Video Capturix 2011 Version 10.04.948
 Release date:  2011-04-06

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Video Capture Glossary

 

ANTI-ALIASING A method of smoothing out jagged edges on screen and in bitmap image files.

ASSEMBLE EDITING Linear editing process whereby shots recorded by your camcorder are copied individually onto a tape in a VCR. Assemble editing allows you to miss out, truncate or rearrange shots.


AUDIO MIXER Device or software program for mixing sounds from several sources, such as a microphone, CD and sound from the camcorder tape.
With stand-alone mixers, each sound source plugs into a different input and the combined output is put out onto a new tape or into a computer. individual level controls for each input enable you to balance the various sound sources.


AVI Audio Video Interleaved. one of two main file formats for digital video the other is Quicklime.


BIOS Basic Input Output System: the chip or set of chips in a computer that controls how the computer communicates with hardware components, such as the disk drives and the keyboard.


BIT The smallest element in digital systems the often mentioned noughts and ones of computing. Also used as a measure of color depth, The more
bits per pixel, the greater the number of colors. There are eight bits in a byte.


BMP The file extension given to Windows graphics files saved in an enhanced Device Independent Bitmap (DIB) format.


BITMAP An image format made up of pixels arranged in rows.


BOOT The process of starting up a computer.


CACHE Memory used to improve the speed of different computer components. including disk drives, video cards and the central processing unit (CPU).


CAPTURE CARD/DIGITIZER Board that connects to the input of a computer and enables a video signal from a camcorder to be converted to a digital signal in a form that can be read and processed by a computer It then performs the opposite process, playing back to a recorder. Essential for non-linear editing.

CLUSTER SIZE The smallest amount of disk space that a file can occupy, With hard disks, the larger the size of the disk, the larger the cluster. On many computers, including those using DOS, Windows 3.x,Windows 95 (Original Version) and Mac OS,this results in much wasted hard disk space because individual small files each occupy a whole cluster much larger than the file itself.


CHROMINANCE The color component of the video signal, denoted by the letter 'C' In high-band camcorders (Hi8, S-VHS and S VHS C),the video signal is split into luminance (brightness) and chrominance (color). Processing the two signals separately helps improve the picture quality and avoid effects such as moire patterning - the tartan-like interference seen on fine patterns in a scene.


CMOS The part of a computer's memory that stores information about the components fitted to the computer, including the number and type of hard and floppy disk drives. If the battery backing up this information goes flat it will be lost and the computer will not be able to boot-up.


CMYK Cyan/Magenta/Yellow/blacK. Most desktop color printers mix links of these four colors to produce a full spectrum of colors. CODEC Compressor/Decompressor, compresses (packs) and decompresses (unpacks) image data. Compression codec's can use software or hardware
to carry out their tasks.


COMPONENT Video systems that process the chrominance and luminance signals separately between recording and viewing. Used in high-band analogue and digital systems, it results in sharper pictures and richer colors.


COMPOSITE VIDEO Combination of chrominance and luminance signals, which are processed together in low-band (8mm, VHS-C, VHS) camcorders. Using this system reduces both the cost of equipment and the quality of the signal.


COMPRESSION Reducing the size of a file on disk or in memory. Compression can be lossless (ie compressed without any loss of information) or lossy, in which some data is discarded, on the assumption that the loss will not be noticeable when the data is decompressed.


CPU Central Processing Unit The heart and lungs of a computer. The Pentium processor and PowerPC are examples of modern CPUs.


DATA RATE Amount of data that a storage device, such as a hard disk or CD-ROM saves/plays back per second, or the amount of data per second in a video sequence.


DEFRAGMENT The process of re-arranging the files on a disk so that each file larger than one cluster in size is stored in adjacent clusters, rather than split up and stored at different places on the disk. If a hard disk contains many fragmented files (caused by repeatedly writing and erasing information to/from a disk) programs will run slowly, because it takes
longer to load such files than it would if they weren't scattered around the disk.


DV DIGITAL VIDEO (formerly DVC) Consumer video recording format that is set to supersede analogue formats (such as 8mm and S-VHS). The main advantages of DV over analogue are the higher quality of the picture and the fact that it isn't noticeably degraded by copying. Cassettes are smaller than 8mm or VHS-C. In the broadcast market, various other digital formats are available, such as DVCPro (Panasonic), DVCam (Sony)
and Digital-S (JVC).


DPI Dots per inch. The resolution of printers and scanners are both measured in dpi - usually quoted both horizontally and vertically. An apparent doubling of the dpi - say from 360x360 to 720x720, results in a quadrupling of the total number of dots. DOS Disk Operating System.


DRIVER Software used to make computer peripherals such as video cards, printers, soundcards and scanners work with a particular type of computer.

EXTENSION The three-letter 'tail' of an MS DOS or Windows filename (preceded by a full stop).It's used by programs to distinguish one type of file from another. As an example .TXT is used for plain text files. GB Gigabyte. Hard disk drive manufacturers inevitably overstate the size of the products they sell because, while the rest of the world believes a gigabyte consists of 1,024 megabytes, they rather conveniently, think it is 1,000 megabytes.

GIF The file extension most commonly used by graphics files intended for transmission over the Internet. Modern Internet browser programs allow interlacing GIF files, so the image can be partly seen before it has been completely downloaded. If the image is not wanted, the download can be stopped saving time and money.


HARD DISK A disk drive, usually fitted out of sight inside a PC, on which the programs used by a computer and the data they generate are stored. Hard disks are much faster in use than floppy disks and also hold much more information.

HI8 High-band analogue camcorder small tape format developed by Sony.

HIGH-BAND The better quality analogue video formats Hi8, S-VHS, S-VHS-C and High-Band U-matic.Chrominance (color) and luminance (brightness) are processed separately in such systems for better resolution than in low-band.


HORIZONTAL RESOLUTION The number of alternate black and white lines per inch a video format is capable of resolving. Low-band formats should be able to resolve more than 250; high-band more than 400.

IRQ Interrupt Request Line. The ID number used by a piece of hardware when identifying itself to the central processor.


INTERRUPT In effect an electronic flag waved by a bit of hardware to catch the attention of a computer's central processor.

JPEG The graphics file format developed by the Joint Photographic Experts Group. The file extensions JPG and JIF are both used to distinguish JPEG files. Although JPEG files use a lossy compression, which greatly reduces file sizes, image quality is surprisingly good.

KB Kilobyte.1,024 bytes

LANC (Control L) Edit control socket found on many 8mm and Hi8 camcorders. With the appropriate lead, information about the camcorder's tape counter position can be transmitted to a VCR (for synchro-edit) or edit controller. Tape transport commands (play record etc) can also be sent along the lead so that the camcorder can be controlled remotely.

LINEAR EDITING Process of copying shots from one videotape to another in sequence.

LOW-BAND Standard analogue camcorder formats VHS, VHS-C and 8mm.

LTC Linear or Longitudinal Time code An alternative time code method to RCTC and VITC used by some professional computer editing packages. Information is recorded on the tape's linear edge track, so mono audio is lost.

MB Megabyte. 1024 kilobytes, though hard disk makers believe it is 1000 kilobytes.


M-JPEG The Motion Joint Photographic Experts Group video compression standard. Based on the JPEG standard developed originally for individual still images. The amount of information contained in even a single second of video is huge. To make digital video recording a practical proposition, therefore, capture cards compress the signal as it's being digitized. M-JPEG is the most commonly used format in home and semi-pro video systems. Captures are written, usually together with audio brought in separately from a soundcard, to one of two types of computer file AVI (audio/video interleaved) or Quicklime. The ultimate file size is determined by the number of frames sampled each second, the amount of compression applied and the length of footage being transferred to disk. The other major compression system currently in use is MPEG.


MPEG The Motion Picture Experts Group standard for video compression. It achieves much of its file size reduction by recording only certain critical frames, plus the changes that take place between them. MPEG works best in professional systems where the editor can override automatic settings to make decisions, such as which additional frames should be included in their totality.

NON-LINEAR EDITING Editing video on computer hard disk. Disks are non-linear format - they store the data in a random order and allow virtual instant access to any part of it Non-linear editing may be carried out with a home computer, such as a Mac or PC. The video from the camcorder passes through a digitiser and is stored on the computer's hard disk (a lot of hard disk space is required gigabytes, rather than megabytes). Appropriate software allows you to review shots, create an edit decision list, add titles and special effects, then preview the edited movie, before copying it to tape.

NTSC National Television Standards Committee. The TV system used in Japan and much of the Americas including the USA.

OPERATING SYSTEM The software used to control a computer and run programs. DOS, Windows 98 and Mac OS are the best known operating systems.

PAL Phase Alternating Line. The TV standard used in Western Europe (except France) and Australia, and much of East Africa, India and China.

PARTITION A hard disk can be partitioned to create two or more logical hard disk drives. The main reason to do this is to be able to have different operating systems running on a single computer, and to prevent wasted hard disk space by reducing the cluster size.

PHOTO CD Negatives and slides of 35mm film stock can be turned into PCD files, and transferred to PhotoCD, by photo finishers. Each file is usually greater than 4Mb in size and contains five versions of the image, covering five resolutions - 192 x 128 pixels;256x384, 512x768, 1024x1536 and 2048x3072.

PIXEL Picture Element A single dot which is the smallest unit displayed on a computer monitor or in a digital image, and which is the smallest imaging element on a camcorder's CCD.

QUICKTIME One of two main file formats for digital video - the other is AVI.

RAM Random Access Memory. The memory used to run programs and hold data while programs are running. Anything held in RAM is lost when the computer is turned off.

RE-BOOT Re-starting a computer.

SCART 21-pin plug for connecting audio and video signals between VCRs and televisions, or between two VCRs. Also known as Euroconnector and Peritel. Some Scart plugs have pins disabled.

SECAM Sequentiel Couleur avec Memoire TV standard used in France and parts of Eastern Europe.


SOFTWARE Programs used on a computer S-VHS/S-VHS-C Super VHS is a high-band version of standard VHS and VHS C (C stands for compact).

SYNCHRO-EDIT Simple editing system that relies on a control lead between camcorder and VCR so that both machines can be controlled by one set of buttons. Pre-roll delay is also built into the synchro-edit system to compensate for backspacing.


TIMECODE A system that allocates an individual label to each frame of video, based on hours, minutes, seconds and frames, plus a tape identifier. Used to ensure accuracy at the editing stage.

VHS Video Home System. Videotape format designed to be used in VCRs and camcorders.


VHS-C VHS (Compact) videotape housed in smaller cassettes, designed to be used in camcorders.

VITC Vertical IntervalTimecode. Video frames are individually labeled for frame-accurate editing. VITC cannot be added to a videotape without disturbing other signals, so it has to be added either during recording or when copying video tapes.

WILDTRACK Ambient sound recorded on location or afterwards and used at the editing stage to add atmosphere. Without it scenes can sound hollow or artificial. Often referred to as 'atmos' it can also help to smooth out the transition between cuts.


WIPE Electronic transition where one shot gradually obscures the previous shot Wipes can be anything from simple straight lines passing across the screen to complex patterns.


Y/C Component video using separate luminance (Y) and chrominance (C) signals - S-VHS quality.


YUV Component video made from separate luminance (Y) and two color difference (U&V) signals Betacam-SP level quality.

 

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